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Administração de Sistemas via Web com Webmin

Colaboração: Nelmar José Alvarenga

Data de Publicação: 01 de Dezembro de 1999

O Nelmar me enviou um documento bastante detalhado sobre o software Webmin, que permite a administração de sistemas Unix via Web. Nós utilizamos este software aqui na Unicamp e temos obtido excelentes resultados.


Há algum tempo tenho usado uma excelente ferramenta de administracao de maquinas UNIX. Seu nome: Webmin, que pode ser encontrado "free" em

http://www.webmin.com/webmin/ 
Release 0.74 de 10/10/1999

e que permite toda a configuracao, manutencao, dentre muitas outras tarefas do cotidiano de um Adminstrador de Sistemas UNIX, serem facilmente executadas via web-browser facilitando tarefas e permitindo que de um ponto qualquer de sua rede, voce possa ate mesmo dar shutdown ou rebootar sua Workstation !!!)

Encontrei o Webmin quando procurava algo para facilitar a administracao do meu Apache --- e olha o que encontrei ! Uma ferramenta que administra o Apache e muito, muito mais !!!

Pré-requisitos: uma maquina UNIX (Solaris, AIX, OSF1, HP-UX, IRIX, LINUX, etc ... !) e PERL 5.003 instalado. OBS: Voce nao precisa do Apache instalado. Mas se tiver, o Webmin nao ira conflitar (pois usa uma porta TCP 10000 e ajudará voce a administra-lo !

O processo de instalacao é muito simples. Veja um exemplo de uma instalacao que executei recentemente, em ambiente Solaris 2.6 (mas ja executei instalacoes em Solaris 2.5.1 e LINUX de diversas distribuicoes, com sucesso):


Fazendo logon como "root" (adicao de pacote PERL e

install do Webmin):
$ su        
Password: 
# pwd
/usr/home/qndw

OBS: Instalando como abaixo, e possivel DESINSTALAR o pacote PERL (obtido em http://sunfreeware.com) pelo "admintool" .

# pkgadd -d perl-5.005_03-sol26-sparc-local

The following packages are available:
  1  LWperl     perl
                (sparc) 5.005_03

Select package(s) you wish to process (or áll' to
process
all packages). (default: all) [?,??,q]: <enter>
Processing package instance <LWperl> from
</usr/home/qndw/perl-5.005_03-sol26-sparc-local>

perl
(sparc) 5.005_03
Larry Wall

The selected base directory </usr/local> must exist
before
installation is attempted.

Do you want this directory created now [y,n,?,q] y
<enter>
Using </usr/local> as the package base directory.
## Processing package information.
## Processing system information.
## Verifying disk space requirements.
## Checking for conflicts with packages already
installed.
## Checking for setuid/setgid programs.

Installing perl as <LWperl>

## Installing part 1 of 1.
/usr/local/README.solaris.perl
/usr/local/bin/a2p
``` .
/usr/local/man/man1/xsubpp.1
[ verifying class <none> ]
/usr/local/bin/perl <linked pathname>
/usr/local/bin/pstruct <linked pathname>

Installation of <LWperl> was successful.

# 

Instalando o Webmin (versao 0.74) no meu diretorio : 
# tar -xvf webmin-0.74.tar
x webmin-0.74, 0 bytes, 0 tape blocks
   ...

# cd webmin-0.74
# ./setup.sh
***********************************************************************
*            Welcome to the Webmin setup script,
version 0.74         *
***********************************************************************
Webmin is a web-based interface that allows Unix-like
operating
systems and common Unix services to be easily
administered.

Installing Webmin in /usr/home/qndw/webmin-0.74 ...

***********************************************************************
Webmin uses separate directories for configuration
files and log files.
Unless you want to run multiple versions of Webmin at
the same time
you can just accept the defaults.

Config file directory [/etc/webmin]:
Log file directory [/var/webmin]: 

***********************************************************************
Webmin is written entirely in Perl. Please enter the
full path to the
Perl 5 interpreter on your system.

Full path to perl (default /usr/local/bin/perl): 

Testing Perl ...
Perl seems to be installed ok

***********************************************************************
For Webmin to work properly, it needs to know which
operating system
type and version you are running. Please select your
system type by
entering the number next to it from the list below
 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
  1) Sun Solaris                          2) Caldera
OpenLinux                  
  3) Redhat Linux                         4) Slackware
Linux                    
  5) Debian Linux                         6) SuSE
Linux                         
  7) Mandrake Linux                       8) Delix DLD
Linux                    
  9) MkLinux                             10) FreeBSD  
                         
 11) BSDI                                12) HP/UX    
                         
 13) SGI Irix                            14)
DEC/Compaq OSF/1                   
 15) IBM AIX                             16) SCO
UnixWare                       
 17) SCO OpenServer                      18) MacOS
Server X                     
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Operating system:  1

Please choose which version of Sun Solaris you are
running, by entering
the number next to it from the list below
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  1) Sun Solaris 2.5                      2) Sun
Solaris 2.5.1                  
  3) Sun Solaris 2.6                      4) Sun
Solaris 7                      
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Version: 3

Operating system name:    Sun Solaris
Operating system version: 2.6

***********************************************************************
Webmin uses its own password protected web server to
provide access
to the administration programs. The setup script needs
to know :
 - What port to run the web server on. There must not
be another
   web server already using this port.
 - The login name required to access the web server.
 - The password required to access the web server.
 - The hostname of this system that the web server
should use.
 - If the webserver should use SSL (if your system
supports it).
 - Whether to start webmin at boot time.

Web server port (default 10000): 
Login name (default admin): <enter>
Login password: <digite uma senha>
Web server hostname (default spows01): 
The Perl SSLeay library is not installed. SSL not
available.
Start Webmin at boot time (y/n): y
***********************************************************************
Creating web server config files..
``` done

Creating access control file..
``` done

Inserting path to perl into scripts..
``` done

Creating start and stop scripts..
``` done

Copying config files..
``` done

Configuring Webmin to start at boot time..
Created init script /etc/init.d/webmin
``` done

Creating uninstall script /etc/webmin/uninstall.sh ..
``` done

Changing ownership of Webmin to root:bin ..
``` done

Attempting to start Webmin mini web server..
Starting Webmin server in /usr/home/qndw/webmin-0.74
``` done

***********************************************************************
Webmin has been installed and started successfully.
Use your web
browser to go to

  http://spows01:10000/

and login with the name and password you entered
previously.

# pwd
/usr/home/x845/webmin-0.74

A partir daqui, basta ir a outra maquina de sua rede com Web-browser (IE ou Netscape ou similar) e acessar

        http://<ip_de_sua_estacao_unix>:10000/

digitar "admin" e senha e voce tera sua estacao a suas maos !!! Portanto, so mais uma dica: MUITO CUIDADO COM O QUE ESCOLHER PARA EXECUTAR (ex: Reboot) POIS TUDO FUNCIONA PERFEITAMENTE (inclusive um gerenciador de arquivos em Java que definitivamente acaba com a necessidade de edicao de arquivos via "vi" !!! Tudo agora via browser !



Veja a relação completa dos artigos de Nelmar José Alvarenga